A new tool has been used for the first time to look at brain activity - ribosomal profiling. The method identifies the proteins that are being made at any time. Ribosomes make proteins using messenger RNA that was copied from the DNA of genes. The method is to destroy all the messenger RNA that is not actually within a ribosome, or in other words, being actively used to make protein. The protected RNA can be used to identify the genes that were being translated into proteins at the moment that the cell was broken and the free RNA destroyed.
ScienceDaily reports on a press release from the Institute for Basic Science describing the use of this technique to study memory formation. (here) The research was done in the IBS Center for RNA Research and Department of Biological Sciences at Seoul National University. There is a on-off switch for formation of memories that is based on changes in protein production.
“When an animal experiences no stimulus in an environment the hippocampus undergoes gene repression which prevents the formation of new memories. Upon the introduction of a stimulus, the hippocampus’ repressive gene regulation is turned off allowing for new memory creation, and as Jun Cho puts it, “Our study illustrates the potential importance of negative gene regulation in learning and memory”.”
I assume this research will appear in a journal paper and that the technique will be used in other studies of the brain. It is always good to hear of new methods being available.